Here are some of the common ones: push-ups, pull-ups, chin-ups, dips, reverse push-ups, and squats. Why are they so good? In all of these exercises, your torso is moving through space and that brings in stabilizer muscles (the more muscle fibers recruited the better the exercise). In addition, the body senses "danger" in these types of exercises and that engages the central nervous system. These factors add up to inflicting maximum damage to your body fat (damage is good in this case). You can liken this to dropping a bomb on your enemy (fat) so that the follow up attack, i.e. cardio, will have an easier time finishing off the job.
I will describe one of the better body parts to train if you want to lose fat fast...your legs. (although this is an excellent muscle to work, you want to train your whole body for great results). The legs are a very strong body part and can push a lot of weight. Thus, this muscle group requires a lot of focus when trained, and the intensity can be incredible. And like I mentioned earlier, when you increase the intensity, you not only burn more calories during the workout, but after as well (the after-burn).